- 1 Botanical description of the Kupena plant
- 2 Types of purchased
- 3 Application bought in landscape design
- 4 Reproduction methods bought
- 5 Landing bought in open ground
- 6 Features of the care of the bath
- 7 The healing properties of the plant
- 8 Collection and procurement of raw materials
- 9 Conclusion
Planting and caring for a bath in the open field consists of simple rules. But first you need to study the features and requirements of the plant.
Botanical description of the Kupena plant
Kupena (Polygonatum) is a perennial plant from the Asparagus family. It has an articulated horizontal rhizome with a bud in the upper part, from where a new vegetative shoot grows every year. The stems of the plant are ribbed, without pubescence, green or reddish, leaf plates are sessile oval in shape, with a smooth edge and a pointed apex.
Kupena is also called the "seal of Solomon" for an interesting feature - with the onset of autumn, the shoot of the plant dies off and leaves a scar with a depressed middle on the rhizome of a characteristic type. By the number of such "seals", one can calculate how old the herbaceous perennial is.
Perennial kupena enters the decorative period in May and June. Snow-white bell-shaped buds appear from the leaf axils in the lower part of the stem and gradually open into full-fledged fragrant flowers. Provided that pollination has occurred, by the middle of summer, fruits are formed in their place - dark berries with several seeds.
The perennial plant lives in subtropical zones, in Indochina and China, in the temperate climates of Asia, Europe and North America. On the territory of Russia, it can be found everywhere in the middle lane, in Siberia, in the Caucasus and in the Far East. For growth, the perennial chooses meadows and fields, mountain slopes, thickets of shrubs.
Kupena is a poisonous plant, or not
A generally useful perennial kupena belongs to poisonous plants and contains a large amount of cardiac glycosides, saponins and alkaloids. It is necessary to use it for culinary and medicinal purposes with great care, fruits are especially dangerous.
Types of purchased
A perennial plant is represented by several dozen species. Among them are the most famous and popular among gardeners.
Pharmacy, or medicinal, Kupena (Polygonatum odoratum), is a plant up to 65 cm tall with flowering in mid-May. The species is widespread in temperate climates and is especially valued for its medicinal properties. In the photo of the kupena garden flower, you can see that its buds are snow-white, with green tips of petals.
Whorled kupena (Polygonatum verticillatum) is a medium-sized plant up to 60 cm above ground level.A feature of the species is that in the upper part there are whorls of 4-8 separate plates. A perennial plant found mainly in Europe in shady forests.
Multiflorous Kupena (Polygonatum multiflorum) is a relatively tall perennial up to 1 m above the ground. The leaves of the plant are arranged in a couple of rows, small white buds appear in bunches of up to four pieces.
Two-flowered kupena (Polygonatum biflorum) is a perennial plant about 40 cm tall with a green slightly pubescent stem. From the end of May to July, it bears 1-2 tubular buds on each peduncle; after their wilting, black berries form.
Kupena crescent variegatu
Sickle-shaped kupena (Polygonatum falcatum) is found mainly in the subtropics of Japan and Korea. It has a stem up to 80 cm, oblong-lanceolate leaves, a light stripe often runs in the center of the plates. The perennial plant's buds are greenish, up to six pieces per peduncle.
The ornamental variety Variegatum is of particular interest to gardeners. Photo purchased in landscape design looks especially impressive, numerous white strokes are clearly visible on the leaves of the plant.
Broadleaf Kupena (Polygonatum hirtum) reaches 50 cm in height. It has large oval leaves up to 7 cm in diameter with a pointed top. It blooms with greenish-white buds at the usual time - in the last days of May and early June.
Narrow-leaved Kupena (Polygonatum stenophyllum) grows in Northern China and in the Russian Primorye. Differs in narrow lanceolate leaves without pubescence on the underside, blooms from late spring to mid-summer.
Caucasian Kupena (Polygonatum polyanthemum) is found in the Crimea, Dagestan, in the Ciscaucasia and Western Transcaucasia. The perennial stem rises by an average of 30 cm, long oval leaves are covered with villi below. In the photo of the Kupena plant, white, tubular, with an expansion in the upper part of the buds are visible.
Holly kupena (Polygonatum acuminatifolium) is a rather rare variety that grows in South Primorye. Rises up to 35 cm above the ground, has a green bare stem without pubescence, pointed lanceolate leaves with a narrowing in the lower part. Gives 2-3 buds per peduncle.
Application bought in landscape design
Most often, kupena in the garden is planted in shady areas next to ferns, hosts, daylilies and primroses. A perennial plant is suitable for:
- to decorate empty lawns;
- for decorating space near walls and fences;
- for the formation of the middle tier of artistic compositions.
Reproduction methods bought
A perennial plant in the garden is propagated in two ways - by seeds and vegetatively. The latter method is used more often because it is simpler and allows faster results.
Growing from seeds
Seeds to grow can be purchased at the store or harvested from mature perennials. The planting material is sown in a sand-peat mixture and laid in a cold place for at least a month, and preferably three.After that, the container is rearranged to warm, and after a couple of weeks, it is removed to cool for another 50 days.
Then the seedling box is finally returned to a bright, warm place and watered regularly. With the onset of summer, a mature perennial plant is transplanted into open ground, while flowering should be expected only after three years.
Dividing the bush
Reproduction by dividing the bush is a convenient and reliable way, suitable for those who are already growing an adult perennial bush on the site. In early spring or September, the plant is carefully dug out of the ground and cut into 2-3 parts with a knife or sharpened shovel. Each division is transferred to a prepared place and planting is carried out in a standard way.
Landing bought in open ground
It is quite simple to plant a plant in a summer cottage. In this case, it is necessary to carefully study the photo, planting and caring for the purchased flower.
Planting a perennial plant in the garden is best done in early spring or late summer. In both cases, it will be able to quickly take root in the soil and will not suffer from cold weather.
Site selection and preparation
The plant prefers light, humus-rich and well-moistened soil. Perennial lighting needs soft and diffused, without direct sunlight.
Shortly before planting the plant, the selected area must be properly dug up and rid of weeds. If necessary, the soil is diluted with sand, peat and humus to make it as nutritious and air-permeable as possible.
Planting a perennial plant in the country looks very simple:
- in the selected area, a shallow hole is dug for a horizontal rhizome - twice the size of the underground system of the seedling;
- drainage and complex mineral fertilizers are laid on the bottom of the pit;
- fill the hole with a mixture of fertile soil, sand and peat and compact;
- deepen the roots of the seedling by about 10 cm into the soil, if necessary add more earth on top;
- watered through a special groove made around the plant.
So that moisture evaporates more slowly, the soil can be mulched immediately with peat, straw or wood chips.
Features of the care of the bath
Planting and caring for a bush garden lily of the valley is not particularly difficult. The main attention should be paid to watering and timely fertilization for abundant flowering.
Watering and feeding schedule
A perennial plant loves moisture, so in the summer it needs to be watered regularly - at least once a week. It is best to use a sprinkler method so as not to erode the soil at roots that are close to the ground. In this case, the intensity of natural precipitation must be taken into account. During the period of heavy rains, the amount of watering is reduced.
Fertilizer for the Kupena plant is applied once a year in the spring before flowering. Perennial prefers organic matter, compost or manure, you can also use mineral mixtures containing nitrogen and phosphorus.
Weeding and mulching
Weeds are able to take away nutrients and moisture from the ornamental plant. With a frequency of twice a month, they are pulled out by hand, and so that they do not reappear, they mulch the soil. You can use peat, straw or fallen leaves.
Preparing for winter
With the onset of autumn, the shoots of a faded plant are cut off at a height of about 5 cm above the ground. The perennial is quite frost-resistant and tolerates temperatures below -20 ° C well. However, for the winter, the roots of the plant are still recommended to be thrown with a layer of sawdust or peat for insulation.
When and how you can transplant a coupon
Kupena grows slowly, but over time it thickens strongly, stops developing and, moreover, begins to interfere with neighboring perennials. Therefore, it is customary to transplant the plant every 4-5 years.
The procedure is carried out in early spring or in the fall. They use the method of dividing - the bush is dug from the old place and the rhizome is cut into pieces, and then the new plants are transferred to the prepared pits.
Diseases and pests
Sadovaya kupena is highly resistant to diseases. The danger to the plant is mainly represented by root rot. Since the perennial prefers moist areas, with excessive watering, the fungus can lead to a softening of the underground part. You can recognize rot by the drying of foliage, the appearance of constrictions on the plates of the plant, by slowing down growth and reducing flowering.
Treatment of fungal ailments of the kupena is carried out using fungicides and Bordeaux liquid. It is also necessary to revise the irrigation regime and provide the plant with good soil aeration. If the root system has suffered too much, then it is better to remove the kupin from the site and burn it.
Of the pests for a perennial plant, the following are dangerous:
- slugs and snails - gastropods settle on broad leaves and feed on luscious greens;
- sawflies - Thick white caterpillars can quickly eat a whole plant if left unchecked.
The fight against gastropods and insects is carried out with the help of copper sulfate and chemicals. With a small damage to the plantings of pests, you can simply wash off the plant with water under a slight pressure.
The healing properties of the plant
Some types of perennial garden plants have medicinal properties. First of all, it is fragrant, or pharmacy, and multi-flowered kupena, they are most widespread. For medicinal purposes, whorled, two-flowered and broad-leaved varieties are used.
Means based on the garden plant Kupena have numerous beneficial properties. When used correctly, they:
- help in the treatment of gout, rheumatism and sciatica;
- remove parasites from the intestines;
- promote healing of wounds, burns and ulcers;
- serve as prevention and help in the treatment of colds;
- cleanse the blood and strengthen the walls of blood vessels;
- relieve fever and inflammation, help reduce pain;
- prevent the development of vitamin deficiency and anemia;
- improve the condition of bones and joints;
- normalize digestive processes.
For women, it is useful to use kupena to relieve painful menstruation and to prevent cancer of the reproductive system. Men can take the plant to maintain potency and to prevent urogenital inflammation.
Application in traditional medicine
Traditional medicine uses all parts of the kupena, its rhizomes, fruits, flowers and herbs. On the basis of plant materials, you can prepare water and alcohol products with a strong medicinal effect.
With diseases of the stomach
An aqueous infusion on the leaves and stems of the Kupena plant has a good effect on gastritis, sluggish digestion and heaviness in the stomach. The drug is prepared as follows:
- two large spoons of dry raw materials pour 500 ml of boiling water;
- cover with a lid and wrap with a towel;
- put away in a warm place for two hours;
- passed through cheesecloth for filtration.
You need to drink the remedy three times a day on an empty stomach, preferably at the same time. The infusion also helps with swelling and kidney disease.
For abrasions and wounds
A decoction of a garden plant is used externally for wounds and abrasions.The product contains a large amount of tannins, prevents inflammation and promotes rapid healing. The recipe looks like this:
- three large spoons of dry roots are crushed;
- pour 500 ml of water;
- boil over low heat for 20 minutes.
A strained decoction of a perennial plant is used for wiping the skin, compresses and lotions. Kupena has a good effect on bruises and bruises and promotes their early resorption.
Kupena root in the treatment of joints is used to relieve the unpleasant symptoms of gout. A simple decoction is prepared for therapy:
- dry raw materials are ground in an amount of 5 g;
- pour 250 ml of boiling water;
- boil over low heat with stirring for 15 minutes;
- cool under the lid and filter.
In the finished product, you need to moisten a bandage or clean gauze and apply to the affected area for 40 minutes. The anti-inflammatory properties of the garden plant decoction quickly soothe pain and improve mobility.
In the treatment of joints, kupena tincture is also used. To prepare it you need:
- pour 100 ml of medical alcohol 100 g of fresh stems and leaves of the plant;
- keep the mixture in a dark place for ten days;
- filter the finished composition.
Tincture of the plant is used for grinding, it has warming and analgesic properties.
The healing properties of the root are in demand for hemorrhoids. The remedy is done like this:
- 3 liters of milk are poured into a large enamel pan;
- pour a small spoonful of powder from the dry roots of the plant;
- in the oven, the milk is evaporated until 1 liter of the original volume remains;
- the finished product is filtered.
You need to take the broth four times a day, 30 ml on an empty stomach.
Although all varieties of a perennial plant are poisonous, pharmacy and multi-flowered kupena are used in cooking. They use mainly young shoots and leaves, which contain a large amount of starch. Raw materials can be marinated with vinegar and garlic, added to soup, stewed vegetables or main courses.
Before cooking, the stems and leaf plates must be processed at a high temperature, washed and blanched for several minutes in boiling salted water. After that, the liquid is drained, and the raw materials are left on the table until they cool. Heat treatment reduces the toxicity of the plant and makes it safe for food use.
Limitation and contraindications
A useful but poisonous plant, the Kupena has some contraindications. You cannot use it:
- during pregnancy and lactation;
- under the age of 16;
- for allergies - seasonal, contact or medication;
- with exacerbations of gastrointestinal diseases;
- in the presence of individual intolerance.
For the first time, herbal remedies are tried with great care. If rash, itching, swelling, suffocation and redness appear, you should immediately stop using the plant and consult your doctor.
Collection and procurement of raw materials
The leaves and shoots of the perennial kupena are harvested during the flowering period in late spring, and the roots of the plant are dug up in November or March. The berries are harvested in mid-summer during the period of maximum ripeness. Raw materials, if necessary, are cut and laid out in a thin layer on a tray in a warm place in the shade. Dry the plant with good ventilation, but away from direct sunlight.
After all the moisture has evaporated, the medicinal preparations are laid out in paper bags or linen bags and put away in a dark place for storage.A long-term bath can be kept in a dry cabinet with a temperature not exceeding 25 ° C, avoiding its contact with other medicinal herbs. Also, a poisonous plant must be removed away from children and pets.
If all the conditions are met, a long-term kupena will be able to retain its healing properties for three years. After that, the collection of the plant will need to be repeated.
Planting and caring for a bath in the open field is an easy task for a gardener. A simple but attractive plant will be able to decorate a summer cottage, decorate empty spaces and, moreover, will bring medicinal benefits for some ailments.